Purpose Epidemiological and biological evidence suggest a preventative effect of selenium and vitamin E on bladder cancer. 0.64 C 1.73, p = 0.79), the 60 in the selenium group (HR 1.13, 0.70 C 1.84, p = 0.52) or the 55 in the vitamin E plus selenium group (HR 1.05, 0.63 C 1.70, p = 0.86). Conclusions This secondary analysis showed no preventive effect of selenium or vitamin E alone or combined on bladder cancer in this population of men. Further studies are needed to assess the effect in women, and at different doses and formulations. INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2010 2010 it was again the second most common genitourinary cancer in the United States with an established 70,530 new cases and 14,680 deaths.(1) Currently it is estimated that more than 500,000 men and women in the United States possess a history of bladder malignancy. The etiology of most bladder urothelial carcinoma is definitely associated with tobacco exposure, occupational exposures to aromatic amines and exposure to the chemical and plastic industries.(2C4)Bladder malignancy is the most expensive cancer in the United States, accounting for almost $3.7 billion (2001 value) in direct costs.(5) There is considerable epidemiological and biological evidence that selenium and vitamin E may prevent bladder malignancy. A recent meta-analysis of 7 published epidemiologic studies, including 3 case-control, 3 nested case-control and 1 case-cohort series, examined the association between 200933-27-3 IC50 selenium levels and bladder malignancy.(6) The total number of cases and settings/cohort users in the identified studies was 1,910 and 17,339, respectively.(7C13) Selenium status was based on 200933-27-3 IC50 analysis of toenails and serum in 4 and 3 studies, respectively. This meta-analysis showed that the overall risk of bladder malignancy was inversely associated with improved selenium relating to a random-effects model (mortality OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42C0.87). The mortality OR was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69C1.27) in males and 0.55 (95% CI 0.32C0.95) in women. In the analysis stratified by gender only ladies showed a significantly decreased risk associated with selenium (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32C0.95). An reverse gender pattern, with protective effects in men but not in ladies, was reported inside a meta-analysis of selenium supplementation, main tumor incidence and mortality.(14) Evidence for the impact of vitamin E within the bladder malignancy incidence is also contradictory. The association between individual vitamin C and vitamin E health supplements, and bladder malignancy mortality among 991,522 American adults in the 200933-27-3 IC50 Malignancy Prevention Study II cohort showed that regular vitamin E supplement use for 10 years or higher was associated with a decreased risk of bladder malignancy mortality (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37C0.96) while regular use of COL5A2 shorter period was not (RR 1.04, 200933-27-3 IC50 95% CI 0.77 C 1.40). (15) On the other hand, the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study, comprising 55,557 men and women 50 to 64 years old at study inclusion with no earlier tumor analysis, used a detailed food rate of recurrence questionnaire with info on the consumption of vitamins C and E, folate and -carotene from diet and health supplements.(16) 200933-27-3 IC50 During a median of 10.6 years of followup bladder cancer was diagnosed in 322 participants, and vitamins C and E, and folate showed no association with bladder cancer no matter source. A case-control study of plasma -tocopherol shown that mean plasma -tocopherol was significantly lower in instances than in settings (23.93 vs. 27.48 g/ml, p < 0.001). (17) A significant decrease in bladder malignancy risk was associated with increasing plasma -tocopherol (modified OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85C0.97). We identified whether selenium and/or vitamin E would prevent bladder malignancy. Towards this goal we used data from your randomized, placebo-controlled SELECT on 34,887 males from a total of 427 participating sites in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico (18) to determine if there were variations in the bladder malignancy incidence. Study participants were randomly assigned to 4 organizations (selenium, vitamin E, selenium plus vitamin E, and placebo) inside a double-blind fashion. Participants received oral selenium (200 g daily from L-selenomethionine) and matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU daily of all- rac--tocopheryl acetate) and matched selenium placebo, selenium plus vitamin E or placebo plus placebo.