In this study we validated intraoperatively the analysis of polymorphonuclear leucocyte frozen sections for diagnosis of infection in hip and knee revisions. but their absence does not exclude it. It is a inexpensive and quick check that needs to be contained in the diagnostic process in revision medical procedures. Level of proof: diagnostic Research (looking into a diagnostic check), level I. Find instructions to writers for a comprehensive description of degrees of proof. Rsum Nous avons analys des coupes de leucocytes polymorphonuclaires, prlevs per-opratoirement put le diagnostic des attacks de hanche et de genou lors des rvisions prothtiques. Entre 1996 et 2002, nous avons examin les coupes et les civilizations des tissus Dimethylfraxetin supplier prioprothtiques prlevs lors des rvisions de prothses (170 cas), 146 cas ont t inclus dans cette tude (83 hanches et 63 genoux). Nous avons valu la sensibilit (SE), la spcificit (SP), la valeur prdictive Dimethylfraxetin supplier positive (PPV), la valeur prdictive ngative (NPV), lindex de Youden, le proportion positif de probabilit (PLR) et le proportion ngatif de probabilit (NLR). Nous avons compar les prlvements per-opratoires et les chantillons inclus dans la paraffine. Rsultats : Dans le groupe des genoux : SE=66,7%; SP=89,7% (CI 95%); PPV=81% (CI 95%); NPV=81,4% (CI 95%). Lindex de Youden=0,56; PLR=6,5 (CI 95%); NLR=0,4 (CI 95%). Paraffine: SE=91%; SP=87% (CI 95%); PPV=81% (CI 95%); NPV=94% (CI 95%); PLR=7 (CI 95%); NLR=8,7 (CI 95%). Nous avons trouv une diffrence significative. Dans le groupe de la hanche SE=50%; SP=100% (CI 95%); PPV=100% (CI 95%); NPV=94,9%) (CI 95%); lindex de Youden=0,5; PLR=0,5 (CI 95%). Conclusions: Dans la chirurgie de rvision des prothses de hanches et des prothses de genoux, la prsence de cellules polymorphonuclaires est bien corrle avec linfection, mais, kid lack nexclue pas celle-ci. Il sagit l dun check rapide, peu invasif qui peut tre pratiqu systmatiquement dans le protocole de ce diagnostic dans la chirurgie de rvision articulaire. Launch Diagnosis of an infection in prosthetic revision medical procedures is normally of paramount importance. Revision of implants, debridement, antibiotics and one- or two-stage prosthesis implantation ought to be performed . Various other alternatives include severe debridement, antibiotic suppression and resection arthroplasty. The treating aseptic loosening enables implantation of a fresh prosthesis through the same medical procedures. The relatively higher rate of an infection (5C10%) in revisions  compels us to produce a differential medical diagnosis of an infection before implantation of a fresh prosthesis. For preoperative medical diagnosis, we utilize the background (pain, drainage), laboratory analysis [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), protein C, blood count], radiology, nuclear medicine and synovial fluid analysis. However these checks display low confidence levels [14, 16, 23]. For intraoperative analysis, we rely on the appearance of periprosthetic cells, Gram sampling and articular fluid analysis. Dimethylfraxetin supplier They also display low confidence levels . It has been demonstrated that histological examination of periprosthetic smooth tissue offers high level of sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV) and bad predictive value (NPV) [3, 11, 17, 25]. Inflammatory foci with polymorphonuclear leucocytes in periprosthetic interfaces correlate with illness, and although this has been questioned , it is generally accepted. We assessed the validity of intraoperative freezing sections. Materials and methods We made a cross-sectional study where the results of 146 instances in 146 individuals (83 hips and 63 knees) were collected prospectively, representing the entire hip and knee revision surgery instances between 1996 and 2002 with total data. We have excluded 24 instances with incomplete data. All individuals received intraoperative antibiotic doses. Three intraoperative smooth tissue samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure having a scalpel cutting tool, choosing highly suspicious or inflammatory areas. Half of the samples were sent for culture to the Microbiology Division (general microbiology, fungus and mycobacterium ethnicities) inside a sealed box in the operative field to avoid contamination. They were cultured on blood agar, chocolates agar and CNA-MacConkey at 37C for 5 days, for fungus, on Sabouraud medium at 35C for 7 days and for mycobacterium on Lowenstein medium for no more than 8 weeks. It was considered the culture was bad if Rabbit Polyclonal to GHRHR no growth was seen in 10 days for general bacteria, 4C5 weeks for fungus and 8 weeks for mycobacterium. It was positive if any colony growth appeared during the mean period..