Emerging evidence demonstrates that platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) plays a critical role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. (81402036), Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (1508085MH197) and the Natural Science Research key Project of Education Office of Anhui Province (KJ2014A152). This work was also supported by grant from NSFC (81172087) and a projected funded by the priority academic program development of Jiangsu higher education institutions. Footnotes CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors declare no conflict of interest. REFERENCES 1. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics. Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:9C29. [PubMed] 2. Llovet JM, Ricci S, Mazzaferro V, Hilgard P, Gane E, Blanc JF, de Oliveira AC, Santoro A, Raoul JL, Forner A, Schwartz M, Porta C, Zeuzem S, Bolondi L, Greten TF, Galle PR, et al. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:378C390. [PubMed] 3. Cheng AL, Kang YK, Chen Z, Tsao CJ, Qin S, Kim JS, Luo R, Feng J, Ye S, Yang TS, Xu J, Sun Y, Liang H, Liu J, Wang J, Tak WY, et al. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:25C34. [PubMed] 4. Johnson PJ, Qin S, Park JW, Poon RT, Raoul JL, Philip PA, Hsu CH, Hu TH, Heo J, Xu J, Lu L, Chao Y, Boucher E, Han KH, Paik Shikimic acid (Shikimate) SW, Robles-Avina J, et al. Shikimic acid (Shikimate) Brivanib versus sorafenib as first-line therapy in patients with unresectable, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: results from the randomized phase III BRISK-FL study. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:3517C3524. [PubMed] 5. Llovet JM, Hernandez-Gea V. Hepatocellular carcinoma: reasons for phase III failure and novel perspectives on trial design. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:2072C2079. [PubMed] 6. Qin S, Bai Y, Lim HY, Thongprasert S, Chao Y, Fan J, Yang TS, Bhudhisawasdi V, Kang WK, Zhou Y, Lee JH, Sun Shikimic acid (Shikimate) Y. Randomized, multicenter, open-label study of oxaliplatin plus fluorouracil/leucovorin versus doxorubicin as palliative chemotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma from Asia. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:3501C3508. [PubMed] 7. Zaanan A, Williet N, Hebbar M, Dabakuyo TS, Fartoux L, Mansourbakht T, Dubreuil O, Rosmorduc O, Cattan S, Bonnetain F, Boige V, Taieb J. Gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a large multicenter AGEO study. J Hepatol. Rabbit Polyclonal to CRABP2 2013;58:81C88. [PubMed] 8. Peck-Radosavljevic M. Drug therapy for advanced-stage liver cancer. Liver Cancer. 2014;3:125C131. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 9. Wang Z, Li Y, Ahmad A, Azmi AS, Kong D, Banerjee S, Sarkar FH. Targeting miRNAs involved in cancer stem cell and EMT regulation: An emerging concept in overcoming drug resistance. Drug Resist Updat. 2010;13:109C118. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 10. Wu Q, Wang R, Yang Q, Hou X, Chen S, Hou Y, Chen C, Yang Y, Miele L, Sarkar FH, Chen Y, Wang Z. Chemoresistance to gemcitabine in hepatoma cells induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and involves activation of PDGF-D pathway. Oncotarget. 2013;4:1999C2009. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Wu Q, Hou X, Xia J, Qian X, Miele L, Sarkar FH, Wang Z. Emerging roles of PDGF-D in EMT progression during tumorigenesis. Cancer Treat Rev. 2013;39:640C646. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 12. Zhang LY, Liu M, Li X, Tang H. miR-490-3p modulates cell growth and epithelial to mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment protein 3. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4035C4047. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 13. Xia H, Ooi LL, Hui KM. MicroRNA-216a/217-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition targets PTEN and SMAD7 to promote drug resistance and recurrence of liver.