Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end items (sRAGE) can be an anti-inflammatory element that mitigates the proinflammatory ramifications of high mobility group package 1 (HMGB1). while serum HMGB1 IL-6 and TNF-α amounts in every subtypes BI6727 of GBS had been significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Moreover increased sRAGE levels and decreased HMGB1 levels after treatment were observed. Our results showed that serum sRAGE may be a useful biomarker for inflammation in the AMAN GBS subtype while HMGB1 may be related to the inflammatory process across all types of BI6727 GBS. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute post-infectious immune-mediated spectrum disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system. A series of epidemiological studies have discerned that the two most common GBS subtypes differ in their geographical distributions: acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) is the dominant subtype in North America Europe and Australia while in Asia especially in China the proportion of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) in GBS is approximately 30-65%1 2 3 4 5 Unlike AIDP AMAN is correlated with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection and the presence of antibodies to gangliosides. Furthermore AMAN may present with a more severe clinical course and poorer outcome than AIDP. Notably AMAN can sometimes simultaneously involve sensory peripheral nerves a condition termed acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN)6. Taken together the different geographical distributions and clinical manifestations of AIDP versus AMAN suggest that the two subtypes of GBS could have different immunopathogenic mechanisms. However differences in the immunologic profiles that might distinguish GBS subtypes and explain their different pathologies are poorly understood. Among the immunologic factors heavily implicated in BI6727 autoimmune disorders is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) a 35-kDa multi-ligand glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily7. RAGE though first described as a receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can bind to several endogenous ligands such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) S100/calgranulins and β-amyloid; thus RAGE is a potent mediator of inflammation8. Reduced soluble RAGE is associated with disease severity of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sci. Rep. 6 21890 doi: 10.1038/srep21890 (2016). Acknowledgments This study was supported in part by the Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology PDGFRA (15JCZDJC35700) the National Science Foundation BI6727 of China (81471221 81171183 to L.Y.) and the National Key Clinical Specialty Construction Project of China. Footnotes Author Contributions L.Y. D.Q.Z. and R.W. were responsible for the study concept and design and data acquisition and analysis; D.Q.Z. T.L. N.Z. and L.N.Y. were responsible for clinical data acquisition and disease diagnosis; H.Z. was responsible for electrophysiological data acquisition and GBS disease subtype classification; R.W. J.P.Z. and G.Q.C. were responsible for experimental data acquisition; D.Q.Z. and R.W. were responsible for data analysis and interpretation and drafting the manuscript; L.Y. supervised the study and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the.